Entrepreneurship researchers in developed countries have found a variety of entrepreneurial education models according to each country’s conditions. Based on a review of a number of literature, various models of entrepreneurship education were found in research-based universities. Gibb (1993) formulated an experience-based entrepreneurial education model. With an experience-based learning model, an educator’s job is to build on the ability of his learners to reflect on the experiences they have gained in a broader context and provide them with the opportunity to make interpretations of the theories they get. Ultimately the experience will lead to actions that reflect entrepreneurial behavior.
Entrepreneurship is a set of behaviors, skills and attitudes shown by a person. Through entrepreneurship education, the entrepreneurial skills and attitudes possessed by each individual are further integrated through the process so as to form behavior. Therefore, the learning process in entrepreneurship education must be able to encourage learners in building entrepreneurial interests, identifying and capturing opportunities, deciding and realizing opportunities into the form of initiative behavior.
Van Vuuren (1999) developed an entrepreneurial education model based on performance (entrepreneurial performance) with the formula E / P = [aM (bE / S x cB / S)]. The model explains that Entrepreneurial Performance is a function of motivation, entrepreneurial skills and business skills. Furthermore, each of these constructs is interpreted as follows: 1) Motivation is an encouragement to improve performance, especially with regard to the motivation of achievement; 2) Entrepreneurial skills include creativity, innovation, courage to take risks and identify opportunities; and 3) Business skills include skills in managing finances, marketing, operations activities, human resources, law, communication, management and skills in drawing up a business plan.
According to Linan (2004), entrepreneurial education is divided into four types. First, entrepreneurial awareness education is an education that aims to increase knowledge about entrepreneurship and influence attitudes that will cause interest. Second, education that aims to encourage someone to be able to set up a business (education for start-ups). This program is aimed at people who have business ideas and need solutions to answer questions about how to become self-employed. The third category is education for entrepreneurial dynamism is education given to people who have run a business but want to improve their business behavior after going through the initial phase of business establishment. Fourth, continuing education for entrepreneurs describes an all-time learning program intended for experienced entrepreneurs.
Pretorius and Ras (2007) developed an entrepreneurial education model that can be applied in the learning process in developing countries, namely South Africa. The model developed emphasizes not only the content of entrepreneurship education but also the context in which the learning process is carried out by facilitators with the approach they use. The model was developed using several dimensions as seen in figure 4, namely: 1) The theme of entrepreneurial success; 2) Business knowledge and skills; 3) The use of a business plan; 4) The learning approach used includes determining the learning objectives of problem solving, discussion, simulation, evaluation, case study, group work; and 5) Facilitators play a role in integrating some of the above elements.
A comprehensive entrepreneurial education model was developed by The Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education (2012). According to this model (figure 5), entrepreneurship education should be able to equip learners with business skills and entrepreneurial skills. The important thing to think about is how to stick between business (enterprise) and entrepreneurship (entrepreneurship) into the curriculum. Business education (enterprise education) aims to produce graduates with the mindset and skills to come up with new ideas in response to the needs that have been identified and the ability of learners to apply them as an employee in the company.
Skills in running a company (enterprising skills) not only include proposing new ideas, identifying opportunities, but also covering a wider range of things, namely the application of emotional, intellectual, social and technical abilities. Therefore, business education is also expected to build skills and intuition in decision making, cooperation in teams, network building, creative problem solving, innovative, strategic thinking skills, and the ability to complete tasks in accordance with the target. On the other hand, entrepreneurship is defined as the application of the specific running skills of the company in creating and capturing opportunities to develop the organization into a larger one. Entrepreneurship education focuses on developing and applying thinking and enterprising skills in terms of new business establishments, development and growth of businesses that have been running, or compiling business organizations of a social nature.
Based on this opinion, it can be explained that both business education and entrepreneurship education equip students and graduates to be able to develop business awareness, entrepreneurial mindset, and overall entrepreneurial ability into the wider field. The effectiveness of entrepreneurship can be defined as a person’s ability to have entrepreneurial and entrepreneurial behavior. This can be done through the development and improvement of awareness, thinking and ability that allows learners to run opportunities effectively and achieve the desired results. Figure 5 explains the role of learning both formally based on curriculum and learning outside the curriculum in the form of extra-curricular activities in contributing to the development of business awareness, entrepreneurial mindset, capability and creating overall effectiveness.
Valerio, Parton and Robb (2014) divide entrepreneurship education into 2 types, namely: entrepreneurship education and training programs (entrepreneurship education and training) as seen in figure 6. Both have the goal of stimulating or encouraging entrepreneurship, but differ in terms of the different objectives or exteriors of the program itself. Entrepreneurship education programs tend to focus on building knowledge of entrepreneurship and skills necessary for entrepreneurial purposes. Instead, entrepreneurship training focuses on building the knowledge and skills that are exclusively necessary in preparation for starting or operating a company.
Gibb, A. (2005). Towards The Entrepreneurial University, Entrepreneurship Education as A Lever for Change. National Council for Graduate Entrepreneurship. Policy Paper. NCGE: Birmingham.
Linan, F. (2004). Intention-Based Models of Entrepreneurship Education. Picolla Impresa/Small Business, 3: 11-35.
Pretorius, M., Nieman, G. & Van Vuuren, J. (2005). Critical Evaluation of Two Models for Entrepreneurship Education: An Improved Model Through Integration. International Journal of Education Management, 19(5): 413-427.
Pretorius, M., &, Ras, P. (2007). An Entrepreneurial Educational Model for The Namibian Higher Education System http://www.actacommercii.co.za/index.php/acta/article/viewFile/52/52.
The Quality Assurance Agency (QAA) for Higher Education. (2012). Enterprise and Entrepreneurship Education: Guidance for UK Education Provider. ISBN 978 1 84979 692 7. www.qaa.ac.uk.