How hard is the risk that someone must face when indicated and proven to have committed plagiarism? The rise of violations of academic ethics is due to the low understanding of academics and the general public about plagiarism itself. Whether it’s a misunderstanding of understanding or the scope of plagiarism itself. So please be careful with this unlawful activity.
What is plagiarism? Plagiarism is an act intentionally or unintentionally in obtaining or trying to obtain credit or value for scientific work by quoting part or all of the works and/or scientific works of other parties which are recognized as scientific works, without stating the source appropriately and adequately. Plagiarism includes but is not limited to: a) Referring to and/or quoting terms, words and/or sentences, data and/or information from a source without mentioning the source in the quotation notes and/or without adequately citing the source; b) Referring to and/or quoting at random terms, words and/or sentences, data and/or information from a source without mentioning the source in the citation notes and/or without adequately stating the source; c) Using the source of ideas, opinions, views, or theories without stating the source adequately; d) Formulate in your own words and/or sentences from the sources of words and/or sentences, ideas, opinions, views, or theories without adequately stating the sources; and d) Submit a scientific work produced and/or published by another party as a scientific work without stating the source adequately.
The definitions and classifications of plagiarism are still vague and general. There are so many definitions of plagiarism, that it is often confusing. Because of the various definitions, experts also make different classifications of plagiarism. However, in general, there are similarities between experts in classifying plagiarism, which depends on various aspects of view. The types of plagiarism include:
First, Plagiarism is based on the main aspects. This classification includes:
1) Plagiarism ideas. This idea of plagiarism is more often associated with the world of writing and journalism. But actually, plagiarism also occurs in the world of music, painting, design, and even the industrial world. Plagiarism of ideas is more often invisible, than any other type. Why? Because in layman we are difficult to distinguish the idea is plagiarism or not. In short, the idea is indeed the result of plagiarism but the packaging uses the language of the taker himself. The plagiarism model of this idea in the academic world, for example, we know replicative research. Replicative research is research that repeats other people’s research, to add data, testing hypotheses whether the results that have been found in one population are also valid for other populations. It is often the case that an individual researcher takes ideas and even takes designs and analyzes from previous research. In short, the design and analysis are congruent with the previous research.
2) Content plagiarism (may include research data). In scientific research, a researcher because of not having data takes data from other or previous researchers. This action is called fabrication or falsification of data. This action is included in the plagiarism criteria if the data taken is made as if the researcher’s data, and does not mention a clear reference source. This model is included in the criteria for severe plagiarism.
3) Plagiarism of words, sentences, and paragraphs. Plagiarism of words, sentences, and paragraphs is easy to detect. The author takes words, sentences, and paragraphs of other authors and makes them as if they were his work. To avoid plagiarism, we must take the substance and rewrite it in our language. Do not forget the source of reference must still be included.
4) Total plagiarism. This model of plagiarism is also very easy to spot. The reason is that someone took the entire article belonging to another author, and only changed the name. This model of plagiarism should be avoided as far as possible. Not only is it prohibited, but it violates writing ethics. As explained earlier, so that we avoid total plagiarism, try to take every idea from another person to be discussed in their own words, and the source of the reference is included. The step of including the source of the reference or quote will not embarrass us, but instead, we avoid plagiarism.
Second, plagiarism is based on intentional or not. This type includes:
1) Intentional plagiarism. As explained earlier, this intentional plagiarism is asking someone else in return for an agreed-upon to make an article, paper, or intellectual work, then stating that the work is his work. In addition to the method of plagiarism as described, the act of copying part or all of a text from a source and then including it in his intellectual work, then informing that it is his work, is a type of intentional plagiarism. Another category of intentional plagiarism is taking part or all of other people’s articles/intellectual works without clearly stating the source, even though it has been discussed in one’s language.
2) Accidental plagiarism. This unintentional plagiarism is transferring sentences or paragraphs of other people’s intellectual results into articles accompanied by the source, but not in the form of direct quotations. This unintentional plagiarism, mostly occurs for several reasons: first, the author is not careful in making notes. Because the target is to finish writing articles/scientific reports/papers and other intellectual works, the writer was not careful enough to not include the references he took; second, the author is less proficient in reporting back data or information. Writing is discussing data or factual information into an interesting description. Writing is difficult for those who are not used to it. No wonder when they get data from a written source, they have difficulty translating or manipulating the data. As a result, writers who are less able to discuss the data or information will take the source as it is, or in the term take it so and “stick” it to their intellectual work; and third, the author does not understand the limitations of plagiarism, so he is not aware that he has committed plagiarism himself. Due to the lack of strict boundaries regarding plagiarism, many parties are not aware of plagiarism.
Third, plagiarism is based on the proportion or percentage of words, sentences, and paragraphs taken. The classification includes a) mild plagiarism: less than 30 percent, b) moderate plagiarism, around 30 to 70 percent, and c) severe plagiarism, more than 70 percent. However, at this time the percentage is getting smaller, both for the process of ranking lecturers’ academic positions and for the policies of the managers of each journal or mass media editor.
Fourth, plagiarism is based on the pattern. This classification includes:
1) Word plagiarism is a model of plagiarism that is very easy to recognize. The plagiarized can be in the form of sentences in a paragraph, or as a whole in an article/intellectual work.
2) Mosaic plagiarism. This type of plagiarism is taking words from other sources / other authors, but by interspersing or inserting their ideas. This plagiarism model is very difficult to detect because at first glance people will assume that it is the author’s thoughts. Those who can detect this mosaic plagiarism model are usually the source owner or the author of the article/intellectual work. The reason is, the true writer understands his writing as he understands himself, his family, and even all of his possessions. The writing process does not only involve thoughts, feelings, and imagination in total. Writing for writers is like a member of the body; when one is sick or missing, other limbs will be felt. So it’s natural that if a paragraph or even one sentence of an author’s writing is quoted by people, the person concerned will immediately notice it.
3) Autoplagiarism or self-plagiarism. If we submit/publish a paper, article, or other intellectual work that has been submitted/published before, then we must state explicitly that the intellectual work has been submitted/published. If we don’t do the explanation or clarification, then we are doing plagiarism type auto-plagiarism or also known as self-plagiarism. Most experts argue that this type of plagiarism falls into the category of “smooth qualified.” However, if auto-plagiarism or self-plagiarism is intended or used to increase academic credit, this type of plagiarism can be considered a serious violation of academic ethics.
Understanding well the definition and classification of plagiarism, will help novice writers avoid violating academic ethics for any reason. Please say no to plagiarism!